Surat, city, southeastern Gujarat state, west-central India. It lies near the mouth of the Tapti River at the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay).
The city is believed to have been founded by a Brahman named Gopi, who built the Gopi Tank (water reservoir) in 1516 and named the area Surajpur or Suryapur. Surat became the name of the city in 1520. It was plundered by Muslims in the 12th and 15th centuries. In 1514 the Portuguese traveler Duarte Barbosa described Surat as a leading port. It was burned by the Portuguese (1512 and 1530) and conquered by the Mughals (1573) and was twice sacked by the Maratha king Shivaji (17th century). Surat thereafter became the emporium of India, exporting cloth and gold. Its major industries were textile manufacture and shipbuilding. The British established their first Indian factory (trading post) at Surat (1612). The city gradually declined throughout the 18th century. The British and Dutch both claimed control, but in 1800 its administration passed to the British.
By the mid-19th century Surat had become a stagnant city of 80,000 inhabitants. It prospered again with the opening of India’s railways. The ancient art of manufacturing fine muslin was revived, and Surat’s cottons, silks, brocades, and objects of gold and silver became famous. The city houses other industries and has several educational institutions. It is served by highways and the Western Railway. The surrounding area is intensively cultivated; chief crops include cotton, millet, pulses, and rice. Pop. (2001) city, 2,433,835; urban agglom., 2,811,614; (2011) city, 4,467,797; urban agglom., 4,591,246.
Surat is a city located on the western part of India in the state of Gujarat. It is one of the most dynamic city of India with one of the fastest growth rate due to immigration from various part of Gujarat and other states of India.
Surat is the 8th largest city of India in terms of population and largest in non-capital cities. As per city mayor’s foundation report, Surat is the 4th fastest growing city globally. The city has a very vibrant economy. It is hub to the diamond and textile industry. According to an estimate, Surat accounts for 90% of the world’s total rough diamond cutting and polishing. In textiles, Surat contributes 40 per cent of the nation’s total manmade fabric production, 28 per cent of the nation’s total manmade fiber production. With the decadal growth of over 55%-60% since last four decades, Surat is one of the cleanest city of India. It has the most vibrant present and an equally varied heritage of the past. It is the city where the British first land in India. The Dutch and the Portuguese also established there business centers in Surat, the remnants of which are still preserved in the modern day Surat. In past this was a glorious port with ships of more than 84 countries anchored in its harbour at any time.
Still today, Surat continues the same tradition as people from all around the country flock in for business and jobs. Surat has practically zero percent unemployment rate and jobs are easier to get here due to very fast development of various industries in and around Surat City.
|Surat City||2nd largest city of Gujarat in terms of Area and Population|
|Population||44,66,826 (Census 2011)|
|Density||13680 Persons/Sq.Km. (Census -2011)|
|Location|| Latitude : 21.112°N|
Longitude : 72.814°E
|Municipality Established||1852 AD|
|Corporation Established||1966 AD|