For other uses, see Season (disambiguation).
A season is a part of a year. Most areas of the Earth have four seasons in a year: spring, summer, autumn (British English) or fall (US English), and winter.
In some areas there are a different number of seasons. For example, in the tropical parts of Australia (in the northern parts of Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory), wet and dry seasons are also observed. These are in addition to, or replace the regular season names.
In places which are tropical and subtropical, there are two seasons: the rainy (or wet, or monsoon) season and the dry season. This is because the rain changes more than the temperature.
Summer is a warm season because the days are longer and the Sun is high in the sky, giving direct light to the ground. Winter is a cold season because the days are shorter and the Sun is low in the sky, giving indirect light to the ground. Both the changes in the length of the day and the height of the Sun at noon are caused by the tilt of the Earth's spin axis with respect to the plane of the Earth's path around the Sun. At any time, in any season, the northern and southern hemispheres (halves of the Earth) have opposite seasons.
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Seasons begin and end on different dates in different countries. In the United States, people say the seasons begin at the solstices and equinoxes. The summer solstice is the longest day of the year, and the winter solstice is the shortest. The equinox is the time when the day and the night are the same number of hours, assuming the sun were a point of light at its center. Since civil dawn occurs when the edge of the sun first appears over the horizon and civil dusk occurs when the edge drops over the horizon, the civil length of day is 12 hours long several days prior to the equinoxes. In the USA, summer begins at summer solstice, winter at winter solstice, spring at the spring (vernal) equinox and autumn at the autumnal equinox.
In Britain, people traditionally say that the seasons begin about seven weeks earlier: spring begins on Candlemas (February 2), summer on May Day (May 1), autumn on Lammas (August 1), and winter on All Hallows (November 1). These are near the cross-quarter days halfway between the solstices and the equinoxes. The Irish calendar is similar, but Spring begins on February 1.
In Denmark, spring begins on March 1, summer on June 1, autumn on September 1 and winter on December 1. In Australia, summer begins on December 1, autumn on March 1, winter on June 1, and spring on September 1.
In the Chinese calendar, the solstices and equinoxes are in the middle of each season. Summer happens in the hemishere tilted towards the sun.
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Seasons of West Bengal
Taking into accounts variations in the elements of climate, i.e. changes in air temperature, amount of rainfall, changes of air current etc. the climate of India can be classified into 4 (four) seasons, such as:
1. Summer (from March to May): During the three months from March to May it is summer in most parts of India. From the beginning of March as the Sun after crossing the equator, approaches the Tropic of Cancer, the temperature increases. Generally in the month of May, may parts of India experiences high temperature. The normal temperature recorded in this time in generally 30°C. But at some places in the plateau region the temperature rises to 40°C and in the Himalayan mountain region, it remains near about 20°C.
2. Rainy season (June to September): The rainy season in India begins generally from the second week of June and continues up to the second week of October. From the second week of June humid monsoon enters various parts of India in the south-west direction from the Bay of Bengal and causes rainfall everywhere in the state. The south-west monsoon causes heavy rainfall.
3. Autumn season (from October to November): From the beginning of October, monsoon begins to recede from this country and consequently rainfall becomes frequent. So this period is also called the season of return Monsoon. Though the rainy season is no longer there, yet, due to the cyclone coming from the Bay of Bengal, occasionally violent storms and rainfall are observed.
4. Winter season (from December to February): During the period from December to February there is winter season in India. In this time the sun exists just above the Tropic of Capricorn and sunlight falls obliquely on various places of India and as a result temperature begins to decrease. Also during this time clouds and dry North-East Monsoon passes over different regions of India and temperature is decreased considerably. But in Himalayan area the temperature is much lower (between 5°C and 10°C). But sometimes cyclone (coming from the West) causes storm and rainfall which is known as Western disturbance.
Category: Indian Geography