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In 2006, the Turkish SSM procurement agency issued a request for information (RFI) for 4 more diesel-electric submarines. That RFI became an RFP for 6 diesel-electric submarines with air-independent propulsion systems, to replace older boats like Turkey’s U209-based Preveze and Atilay classes.
DID covers the competition, and adds some quick background re: the Turkish Navy’s existing fleet, where its rival Greece stands, and contract developments regarding their new “Cerbe Class”. Turkey has a signed multi-billion Euro contract for HDW’s U214 subs… and are about to add a revolutionary new weapon.
Contracts and Key Events
The U214/1200 Cerbe class has an 80% industrial offset provision, with Golcuk Naval Shipyard retaining its position as the build location. STM will assist. Havelsan will be involved in customizing the combat system, while Milsoft delivers Link-11/22 datalinks, and state agency TUBITAK will offer an underwater telephony system and help by verifying submarine signatures. Koc Savuma Sistemleri provides a torpedo countermeasure system.
2010 – 2015
Contract goes into effect; Agreement for sub-launched anti-aircraft missile.
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jan 23/15: Delay penalties. Delays in the 214TN program are causing Turkey to fine (German) Thyssen Krupp.
May 12/14: Weapons. The US DSCA announces Turkey’s formal export request for up to 48 MK 48 Mod 6 Advanced Technology All-Up-Round (MK-48 Mod 6AT AUR) Warshot Torpedoes, along with containers, fleet exercise sections, exercise fuel tanks, a surface recovery cage and tools, exercise hardware, maintenance facility upgrades, support and test equipment, spare and repair parts, personnel training and training equipment, publications and technical documentation, and other forms of US Government and contractor support.
Turkey will use the new torpedoes on their new U214/1200 Cerbe Class submarines, instead of Atlas Elektronik’s Seahake MOD 4. The DSCA says that Turkey is capable of integrating, employing, and maintaining the MK-48 Mod 6ATs, based on their experience to date with light MK-46 Mod 5A(S)W and MK-54s. They add that implementation of this proposed sale won’t require any more US Government or contractors, just occasional contractor engineering and technical services as needed.
The total estimated cost is up to $170 million, but negotiations will determine the exact price. The principal contractor will be Raytheon Company Integrated Defense Systems in Keyport, WA (MK-48); and Lockheed Martin Sippican in Marion, MA (CBASS). Sources: US DSCA #13-56, “Republic of Turkey – MK 48 TORPEDOES”.
DSCA request: Turkey MK-48 torpedoes (48)
May 13/13: Weapons. ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems and Diehl Defence sign a cooperation agreement with Turkey’s Roketsan to develop and supply the submarine-launched IDAS (Interactive Defence and Attack System for Submarines) anti-aircraft missile. Roketsan will be responsible for the IDAS warhead, support testing of the Control Actuation System with some follow-on work share, and participation in system-level design activities. The Norwegian company Nammo is developing and producing the rocket motor.
IDAS builds on Diehl’s experience with the IRIS-T short-range air-to-air missile, and is launched without a protective capsule using a torpedo canister. An autopilot and image-processing infrared seeker offer autonomous guidance and navigation, with a fiber-optic data link as an operator-controlled backup. Its presence on submarines like the U212A/ U214 makes life far more dangerous for sub-hunting helicopters and maritime patrol aircraft, who have never had to worry about counterattacks before. Diehl.
July 1/11: The July 2/09 submarine deal takes effect, and its value is published as EUR 2 billion (currently about $2.9 billion) in public statements by TKMS.
“The two-billion-euro order for six U-214 submarine material packages placed with ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems by the Republic of Turkey has been activated with the receipt of the advance payment… ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems can now begin executing the order. The order will contribute to securing employment at [ThyssenKrupp’s] Howaldswerke Deutsche Werft, or HDW, in Kiel, as well as at many subcontractors in Germany and Turkey, for the next 10 years.”
Of course, that’s just the TKMS deal. Without a more detailed report, it’s not clear whether, and how much, of the Turkish work at the Golcuk Shipyard might be considered extra. Hurriyet reports that the 2 sides had been discussing loan conditions for the last 6 months, with an agreement finally coming in late June 2011. Defense News adds that the go-ahead means the end of modernization plans for Turkey’s older submarines.
June 30/11: Spin-off opportunity. A Turkish Ministry of Defense official tells Today’s Zaman that a deal with Indonesia for 2 U209 submarines is “very close.” If the expected deal between the two states is signed, Turkey’s Savunma Teknolojileri Muhendislik ve Ticaret A.S. (STM) would partner with HDW to build them in the Golcuk shipyard. As it happens, Turkey loses to HDW partners in South Korea, but there may be another competition before Turkish shipyards are done building the U214s. Read “Submarines for Indonesia” for full coverage.
March 26/11: Transparency. Turkish media shine a spotlight on the fact that the government has not revealed key facts of the U214 deal, such as the deal’s price, or the submarines’ technical features. The Bugun daily adds that Turkey’s Undersecretariat of the Treasury had initially objected to the high interest rate on financing deal payments, and concerns were also raised over hidden costs such as inflation predictions, and labor costs for construction in Turkey. Overall, these factors are estimated to add up to EUR 1 billion, pushing outside estimates of the deal to around EUR 3.5 billion.
Even at lower figures such as the EUR 2.19 billion allocated for financing, there is also criticism that Turkey ends up paying more than Greece did for U214 submarines. Given that Greece’s submarines reportedly had their cost inflated by bribes and extra add-ons, that should be a matter of some concern in Turkey. The German magazine Manager says that bribery is not unknown to the naval firm, and alleges that TKMS Marine’s HDW subsidiary has paid bribes related to submarine buys in Argentina (U209), Colombia (U209), and Portugal (U214), as well as Greece (U214). Today’s Zaman.
Jan 12/11: Financing. After long negotiations threatened to destroy the submarine deal, a major financing deal between German banks and the Turkish Treasury reportedly rescued the project on Dec 31/10. The Turkish Treasury announced that:
“For the financing of the production of  submarines in Turkey, an export credit agreement in the amount of 1.878 billion euros was signed between the Undersecretariat of the Treasury and bank consortium led by Bayerische Landesbank, and a commercial loan agreement in the amount of 309 million euros was signed between the Undersecretariat of the Treasury and a bank consortium led by WestLB London Branch on Dec. 31. The total amount of financing provided equals 2.187 billion euros.”
This finally begin to put a firm deal figure on Turkey’s submarine program, which had been estimated at EUR 2.5 billion but had no contract. The financing package is reportedly the last obstacle to a firm deal, and at current exchange, EUR 2.187 billion is about $2.886 billion. The submarines will still be built at the military-owned Golcuk Shipyard near Izmit, and the Turkish government is still reportedly hoping for an in service date “shortly after” 2015. In practice, however, negotiation delays usually translate into fielding delays of similar magnitude. In this case, fielding in late 2016 to early 2017 seems likeliest. Hurriyet Daily.
2006 – 2009
Turkish competition; HDW picked and contract signed.
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Nov 18/09: Cost concerns.Hurriyet reports that previous accounts of the Turkish deal may have overstated the cost:
“…selected HDW over its French and Spanish rivals in the summer of 2008. At the time, the program’s expected cost was announced to be nearly 2.5 billion euros. After yearlong price and work-sharing negotiations… a final contract was signed in July.
No price was specified in the public announcements for the contract at the time, but Hürriyet Daily News & Economic Review found out that the cost of the program was around 1.96 billion euros, which is nearly 500 million euros lower than the original price.”
July 2/09: Contract. The Turkish government signs a reported EUR 2.5 billion ($3.5 billion equivalent) contract to co-produce 6 of HDW’s U-214 class submarines, with HDW’s fuel cells for air independent propulsion. The submarines will be built at the military-owned Golcuk Shipyard near Izmit, and the expected delivery date for the first U-214TN submarines remains 2015.
According to Turk Net Haber, HDW will pre-assemble key structural and mechanical parts in Germany, as well as classified elements such as the fuel cells and propulsion system. All electronic and weapon systems, including sensors, communications, and data processing systems, will be designed and produced in Turkey. Defence Minister Vecdi Gonul has reportedly stated that Turkish industrial participation would be worth around 80% of the deal’s value.
The order lengthens HDW’s lead in air-independent propulsion systems. Once these submarines are fielded, there will then be 36 submarines with HDW fuel cell propulsion systems in operation world-wide. ThyssenKrupp release | Defense News | Turk Net Haber | Defense Aerospace | Reuters Germany [in German].
6 U214 submarines
Aug 26/08: Competition. The SSM begins contract negotiations with the HDW/MFI Business Partnership, for U-214 submarines with Air Independent Propulsion. Source.
Nov 12/07: Competition. The Turkish Undersecretariat for Defense Industries (SSM) has confirmed 3 bidders for the Future Submarine Project. DCNS in France, HDW/MFI in Germany, and Spain’s Navantia S.A.
HDW is the current incumbent in Turkey, and their most advanced submarines are the U-212A and U-214 classes. The U-212A has been ordered by Germany (5) and Italy (2), while the U-214 has been ordered by Turkey’s rival Greece (4) and by South Korea (3).
DCNS and Navantia both make Scorpene class submarines, which have been sold to India (6), Chile (2), and Malaysia (2). That partnership has split over future models, however, with Navantia developing the larger S-80 class for Spain in cooperation with BAE (4), and DCNS developing the Marlin class for export.
March 15-16/07: Competition. Turkey’s SSM holds a bidder conference for RFP purchasers.
Feb 2/07: Competition.The Turkish SSM lists the companies who bought the New Type Submarine (AIP) Project RFP. They are:
- Armaris (France, would become DCNS)
- Fincantieri Cantieri Navali Italiani S.p.A. (Italy)
- HDW/MFI (Germany)
- Lockheed Martin Maritime Systems & Sensors (USA)
- Navantia S.A. (Spain).
Lockheed and Fincantieri are almost certainly positioning themselves as subcontractors.
Dec 28/06: Competition. The SSM’s RFP announcement raised the total from 4 to 6 submarines, and adds air-independent propulsion systems as a requirement. See release with contact information… but the fee of the RFP is EUR 10,000 (currently about $13,200). Get your Euros in by January 31, 2007, by 17:00 Ankara time.
June 23/06: Competition. DID’s “Turkey Gets Responses re: Sub Program, Delays Other RFPs” covers the firms that responded to the RFI, most of whom are subcomponent manufacturers or services providers. Within the respondent group, HDW, Armaris, and Navantia all build diesel-electric submarine classes with air-independent propulsion; Kockums and Russia’s Rosoboronexport are conspicuous by their absence.
Links add details re: both the sub RFI, and accompanying competitions for a Submarine Rescue Mother Ship (Moship) and 2 Rescue and Towing Ships.
March 2006: Competition.Defense-Aerospace relayed a Turkish SSM procurement agency RFI for 4 more diesel-electric submarines:
“In this frame, Request for Information is issued to gather administrative, financial and technical information from related Companies who may be willing to participate for the project activities. The companies who are willing to reply to the RFI may request the RFI document by sending an e-mail including their company name and detailed contact address to [colcay -at- ssm -dot- gov.tr]. Then, the RFI document will be sent to the related companies by e-mail. The deadline for requesting the RFI document from SSM is May 15th, 2006 by local time 17:00.”
Appendix B: The U209 Family
HDW family tree
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- = Type 209 boats are often followed by a number that indicates the displacement of their version. Since these numbers have tended to grow over time, they can also help observers determine submarine modernity, but they are not an absolute guide by any means.
Appendix A: Current Incumbents, and Future Possibilities
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Haze Gray notes that Turkey currently operates 6 SSK Atilay class (Type 209-1200) diesel-electric attack submarines built between 1975-1989, and will also operate a total of 8 related Preveze class (Type 209-1400*) boats when current commitments are fully built out. The second group of 4 U209-1400s was a DM 996 million contract signed in 1998 for a slightly modified design, and is sometimes referred to as the Gur class. Golcuk Naval Shipyard has worked in cooperation with HDW on many of these submarines, and will be the local co-production partners for these “new type submarines” as well.
This seemed to put HDW in a favorable position for additional orders from Turkey with its U-212 improved & U-214 Class, and the final outcome bore that out.
Other contenders included firms like France’s DCNS (Agosta class, Scorpene class, newer Marlin class under development), and Spain’s Navantia Scorpene class, newer S-80 class under development). They are always serious competitors; and firms like Kockums AB (Gotland class, and Collins class with ASC) and even their Russian neighbor’s Rubin Central Maritime Design Bureau (Project 636 Improved Kilo class) had to be seen as possibilities.
Neither HDW subsidiary Kockums AB nor the Rubin Central Maritime Design Bureau requested RFIs – though either or both could have theoretically bought an RFP and responded anyway.
The first submarine of the new class is scheduled for delivery in 2015.
Categories:Contracts - Awards, Design Innovations, France, Germany, Indonesia, Missiles - Surface-Air, New Systems Tech, Other Corporation, Pre-RFP, RFPs, Submarines, Turkey
Type 214 / Type 209PN
The Type 214 Submarine is being built for export by Kockums and HDW and will use two AIP (Air Independent Propulsion) systems - Fuel Cell and Stirling. Germany, Greece, Indonesia, Portugal and South Korea plan to use various derivatives of the Type 214.
The Type 214 submarines are equipped with air independent propulsion (AIP) and flank array sonar (FAS). AIP can extend the underwater operation period of the diesel-powered submarines to five to six times longer than that of conventional submarines. For military applications, the advantages of an extremely quiet power source confer great tactical benefits and the current disadvantages of relatively low output compared to its size and weight mean that the first large units are in underwater systems.
The latest additions to the German shipbuilder HDW's highly successful Type 209 family of submarines, the Type 212 (ordered by Germany and Italy), the Type 214 (ordered by Greece), and the Type 800, are all fuel cell powered. A submarine that uses fuel cells rather than a diesel engine to recharge its batteries produces much less sound while doing so, and consequently the effective detection range of many of the current passive acoustic sonobuoys is reduced.
PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cells are known for their efficient conversion of hydrogen (as fuel) and oxygen into electrical energy. Optimised for the specific requirements in submarines they are the key component for the generation of electrical energy in future conventional submarines with increased operational range during silent run built by the shipyard HDW. Siemens developed and manufactured two different types of PEM fuel cell modules, one type for the German and Italian U 212 submarines and the other one for the U214 submarine respectively, as they will be used by the Hellenic and the South Korean navy.
The Hellenic Navy (HN) embarked on a new construction submarine program, and contracted with the German firm for the Type 214 submarine. In October 1998, the government announced its decision to procure up to four Type 214 SSKs. Its eight Glavkos-class SSKs remain operational. In February 2000 the Skaramangas Shipyards signed an agreement with Ferrostaal Essen and HDW Kiel for the building of three Type 214 submarines, with an option for the construction of one more. The total cost of the contract for the submarines comes to 430 billion drachmas, with offset benefits for Greek industries amounting to some 76 billion drachmas, or 19 percent of the contract. Work began on the first submarine at the Kiel shipyard 12 months later, with a delivery date of 60 months. The second sub was to be delivered in 85 months' time. The first Type 214 submarine was set for delivery to Greece in 2005.
As part of the overall program, the HN has a requirement for a heavyweight torpedo. A team of USN and Raytheon personnel visited Greece in November 2000 to brief the MK 48 MOD 6 ADCAP and the possibility for a more economical commercial alternative. A USN position on this alternative solution (the MK48 MOD6AT) was staffed in the submarine community. The alternative would become a team effort, led by Raytheon, with participation by Northrup Grumman and the USN. The main Greek opposition New Democracy party (ND) accused the government of non-transparent practices in awarding the submarine contracts.
In early November 2000 the ROK Defense Ministry picked the German firm Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) and its Type 214 submarine as the foreign contractor for the next-generation "KSS-II" submarine project to supply three 1,800 ton-class submarines to the Navy by 2009. South Korea selected the German company's Type 214 submarine over the French Scorpene submarine because the Germans offered a better price and parts supply. The South Korean Government had abandoned plans to acquire three Kilo-Class 636 second-hand submarines from Russia, as part-payment for an outstanding loan of $1.75 billion. Valuing the submarines at $1.1 billion after inspection, the Korean team concluded the boats did not meet quality requirements.
In late November 2000 the ROK Defense Ministry selected Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. (HHI) for the 1.27 trillion-won ($1.12 billion) project to build submarines with the German firm's technology and design. Hyundai Heavy, a shipbuilding arm of the giant Hyundai Group, outbid rival Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Ltd. to team up with HDW. Hyundai Heavy won the contract as it offered lower prices and was in better financial shape than Daewoo Shipbuilding. Daewoo Shipbuilding had enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the South Korean submarine industry until early 1999, when the Defense Ministry allowed Hyundai to participate in the KSS-II submarine project. By acquiring technology from foreign contractors, the ROK Defense Ministry had hoped to design its own submarines by 2010.
A pair of new portugese Class Type U-209PN were delivered by TKMS Kiel to the Portugese navy in 2009-2010. The submarines have a combined diesel-electric and fuel cell propulsion system. Equipped with ultra-modern sensors and an integrated Command and Weapon Control System, it is optimally suited to its future reconnaissance and surveillance tasks. The contract for the two submarines was signed in 2004 between the Portuguese State and the German Submarine Consortium (GSC). Two new German Class 209 submarines -- one named Tridente, the other Arpao ("Harpoon") -- give the Portuguese Navy the capacity for defense and law enforcement patrol. It should be noted that Portugal caused increases in the price by specifying upgrades to the base 209 design, with features from the newer Class 214 submarines.
As of 2012 a total of 22 Type 214 submarines had been contracted: 02 Portugal, 04 Greece, 10 South Korea, 06 Turkey.
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