Cameroon is a Central African nation on the Gulf of Guinea. Bantu speakers were among the first groups to settle Cameroon, followed by the Muslim Fulani until German domination in 1884. After World War I, the French took over 80% of the area, and the British 20%. After World War II, self-government was granted, and in 1972, a unitary republic was formed out of East and West Cameroon. Until 1976 there were two separate education systems, French and English, which did not merge seamlessly. English is now considered the primary language of instruction. Local languages are generally not taught as there are too many, and choosing between them would raise further issues.
Christian mission schools have played a significant role in educating children whose parents can afford them. But most cannot. Primary schooling has been free since 2000, but these are very basic, overcrowded, and parents must pay for all sundries. A 2004 government study found that elementary schools only had enough seats for 1.8 million students, with an attendance of 2.9 million. There are fewer girls than boys, mainly due to such things as early marriage, pregnancy, domestic chores, and traditional biases. On the back of this, the Cameroonian government launched a programme of construction and renewal, but with limited success. Corruption is still a problem and facilities remain basic. Most schools have working toilets, access to a water tap, or enough tables and benches for students. Teachers are highly trained and highly motivated. Secondary schools are expensive and there are both state-run and private universities.
Two separate systems of education were used in Cameroon after independence: East Cameroon’s system was based on the French model, West Cameroon’s on the British model. Uniting the two systems was deemed a symbol of national integration between West and East Cameroon. The two systems were merged by 1976, but studies suggest that they didn’t blend well. Shortly after independence, French was considered the main language of the country, but with the rising of English as first commercial language in the world, the balance switched to the latter. Christian mission schools have been an important part of the education system, but most children cannot afford them and are forced to choose state-run schools. Education became compulsory up to the age of 12 years, when 6 years of primary schooling are complete. Primary school education is free (since 2000), but families must pay for uniforms, book fees, and sometimes even anti-malaria prophylaxis for pupils. Tuition fees at the secondary school level are high, and therefore unaffordable for many families. The country has institutions for teacher training and technical education. There is, however, a growing trend for the wealthiest and best-educated students to leave the country to study and live abroad.
The Constitution affirms that “the State shall guarantee the child’s right to education [and that] primary education shall be compulsory”, however, the government avoided human rights language and refers only to “equality of opportunity for access to education”.
|Expected years of schooling (on average)||12 yrs|
|Adult literacy rate (people aged 15 and more, both sexes)||71.3%|
|Mean years of schooling (adults)||5.9 yrs|
|Combined gross enrollment in education (both sexes)||60.4|
According to data available for 2011, 47.7 percent of girls and 56.7 percent of boys attended primary school. The low school enrolment rate was attributed to cost, with girls’ participation further reduced by early marriage, sexual harassment, unwanted pregnancy, domestic responsibilities, and certain socio-cultural biases. Domestic workers are generally not permitted by their employers to attend school. A 2004 government study found there is a large gap between the capacity of the schools and the number of potential students. According to the study, preschools served only 16% of the potential student population. Within the school system, the northern provinces were the most underprivileged, with only 5.7% of all teachers working in the Adamawa, North, and Extreme North provinces combined. The study showed that elementary schools only had enough seats for 1.8 million students, although 2.9 million attended school. After these findings, Cameroonian government launched a three-years programme to construct and renovate schools, improve teacher competency, and provide instructional materials, which was apparently renewed in 2010. Still problems are not to be considered resolved: embezzlement of education funds is considered the main problem in primary education; half of the state primary schools in the sample reported problems with their buildings (only 19% of schools have working toilets, 30% have access to a water tap, and barely 30% have enough tables and benches for students); absenteeism of teachers and poor implementation and enforcement of rules and regulations
Structure of the educational system
The educational system in Cameroon is divided into primary (six years, compulsive), middle school (five years), secondary (high school, two years), and tertiary (University). The academic year runs from September to June, at which time, end-of-year-examinations are always written. The General Certificate of Education (GCE), both Ordinary and Advanced levels, are the two most qualifying exams in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. There are two separate secondary schooling systems, depending on whether the French or British colonial models apply. In broad terms though, the secondary phase comprises a lower (middle school) and an upper level (high school). For the majority of young people this distinction remains academic, because their parents are unable to afford secondary school fees at all. Students who graduate from a five-year secondary school program have to sit for the GCE Ordinary Level, and those who graduate from a two year high school program have to sit for the GCE Advanced Level. So far, the GCE advanced level and the Baccalaureate (the French equivalent of academic attainment) are the two main entrance qualifications into institutions of higher learning. After secondary school, there is the possibility of undertaking “vocational studies,” courses aimed to unemployed people under the responsibility of the Ministry of employment.
French grading scale
|Scale||Grade description||US Grade||Notes|
|15.00-20.00||Très bien (very good)||A|
|12.00-12.99||Assez bien (quite good)||B+|
|0.00-9.99||Insuffisant (insufficient)||F||Failure (May be considered passing if entire year is passed)|
English grading scale
|Scale||Grade description||Division||US Grade|
|A-||Second class||Upper division||A- / B+|
|B||Second class||Lower division||B|
Primary and secondary education
Education is compulsory through the age of 12 years. Primary school education has been free since 2000; however, families must pay for uniforms and book fees. Tuition and fees at the secondary school level remain unaffordable for many families.
In 2002, the gross primary enrollment rate was 108 percent. Gross enrollment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance. In 2001, 84.6 percent of children ages 10 to 14 years were attending school. As of 2001, 64 percent of children who started primary school were likely to reach grade 5.
Fewer girls enroll in primary school in Cameroon than boys. In 2001, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child identified a number of problems with the education system in Cameroon, including rural/urban and regional disparities in school attendance; limited access to formal and vocational education for children with disabilities; children falling behind in their primary education; a high dropout rate; lack of primary school teachers; and violence and sexual abuse against children in schools. Early marriage, unplanned pregnancy, domestic chores and socio-cultural biases also contribute to low education rates. Domestic workers are generally not permitted by their employers to attend school.
The adult literacy rate is 67.9%. In the southern areas of the country almost all children of primary-school age are enrolled in classes. However, in the north, which has always been the most isolated part of Cameroon, registration is low. Most students in Cameroon do not go beyond the primary grades. There has been an increasing trend of the smartest students leaving the country in recent years to study abroad and settling there: the so-called "brain drain".
Two separate systems of education were used in Cameroon after independence. East Cameroon's system was based on the French model, West Cameroon's on the British model. The two systems were merged by 1976. Christian mission schools have been an important part of the education system. The country has institutions for teacher training and technical education. At the top of the education structure is the University of Yaoundé. There is, however, a growing trend for the wealthiest and best-educated students to leave the country to study and live abroad, creating a brain drain.
passing the Government Common Entrance Examinations (and obtaining a First School Leaving Certificate) in Class 6 (now) or 7 (formerly). The last two years in secondary school, after GCE O Levels, are referred to as high school. A high school is part of the secondary school but in Cameroon, it is habitual to talk of secondary school for a school which ends at the O Levels and high school for one which offers the complete secondary education program of 7 years (or one which simply has lower and upper sixth classes).
The academic year in Cameroon runs from September to June, at which time, end-of-year-examinations are always written. The General Certificate of Education (GCE) both Ordinary and Advanced levels are the two most qualifying exams in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. Students who graduate from a five-year secondary school program have to sit for the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level, and those who graduate from a two year high school program have to sit for the General Certificate of Education Advanced Level. So far, the GCE advanced level and the Baccalaureate (the French equivalent of academic attainment) are the two main entrance qualifications into Cameroon's institutions of higher learning.
Researchers from the PanAf Project Cameroon found that female students now use social internet networks more for pedagogical reasons than the traditional thought of searching for boyfriends. The most used social internet networks included Facebook, Myspace, Hi-5, Whatsapp, Aidforum and Commentcamarche.
Although Cameroon boasts a sprawling cache of junior academic institutions of excellence, higher institutions are rather insufficient. There are eight state-run universities in Buea, Bamenda, Douala, Dschang, Maroua and Ngaoundere and Yaounde I & II. There is a handful of thriving private universities such as the Bamenda University of Science and Technology (BUST), International University, Bamenda and the Fotso Victor University in the west province.
The University of Buea is the only Anglo-Saxon style university,the University of Bamenda which went operational in 2011 is bilingual, Cameroon has one English University. The rest of Cameroon's six state-managed universities are run on the francophonie model, although in principle, they are considered to be bilingual institutions. Cameroon's universities are strictly managed by the central government, with the pro-chancellors and rectors appointed by presidential decree. The minister of higher education is the chancellor of all Cameroon's state universities.
Compared with neighbouring countries, Cameroon generally enjoys stable academic calendars. In all, Cameroon's higher education has been a success since independence, with thousands of its graduates mostly consumed by the national public service. Since the 1990s, with economic crises, a new trend has been for hundreds of university graduates leaving the country for greener pastures in Western countries.Since this graduates are going out looking for greener pastures or for studies, universities should implement some of those courses learned out there such as digital marketing so as to develop our country even before 2035 that has been spoken of. These students go out and apply their skills in countries that have been developed already, instead of staying home and making things better. The government is doing little or nothing to curb this brain drain.
Nonetheless, an emerging number of private higher technical institutions of learning like the American Institute of Cameroon AIC, Nacho University, Fonab Polytechnic, and many others are beginning to reshape the predominantly general style of education that for over three decades has been the turf of most anglophone students in Cameroon.
Eight Public Universities in Cameroon include:
Other Universities in Cameroon include:
- St. Thomas Aquinas Regional Major Seminary (Bambui)
- The Information and Communication Technology University University (The ICT University) (Yaounde, Cameroon)
- Bamenda University of Science & Technology (Bambui)
- Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda (Bambui)
- Fomic Polytechnic, Buea (Buea, www.fomicgroup.cm)
- International University, Bamenda: website, facebook
- University Institute of the Diocese of Buea (two campuses)
- University of Maroua
- ST Monica America University, Cameroon, Buea (Muea Longo)
- American Institute of Cameroon, Ndop
- Catholic University of Central Africa (Yaounde)
- International Relations Institute of Cameroon
- Siantou and Ndi Samba Schools of Higher Learning (Yaounde)
- St Louis University Institute of Medical and Biomedical Sciences in Bamenda
- National Polytechnic Bambui
- St Jerome University Douala
- Institute Université de l'coté Douala
Cameroon public expenditure on education in 2011, according to UNESCO, amounted at 3.7% of GDP. St Monica America University
Absenteeism of teachers is a reason generally considered to contribute to the poor level of education in the country. Teachers from both English and French sub-systems, for cultural and historical reasons, still operate as separate in the educational system, and this prevents “teachers from developing a joint pedagogical repertoire about professional matters and to engage in productive debates around new discourses and repertoires such as ICTs in support of teaching,” even if as private individuals, they “appear to be open to the challenges of modern Cameroon and multilingual communication in large urban centres.”
In 1995, the National Forum on Education strongly recommended “the insertion of local knowledge and practices in the school curriculum to make the education system more relevant to the learners.” For so, the Institute of Rural Applied Pedagogy (IRAP) put into place adapted programs and an integrated training that combined general knowledge with work practices (agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, brick laying, carpentry, etc.). However, the system was not perfectly balanced: traditional subjects (i.e. Mathematics, Science, French language) were adequately developed, whereas the new subjects were not studied to adapt to the different situations, nor were considered other needs (in rural zones, children are forced to leave school because they are needed to provide enough means of support to their family). The project wasn’t a complete failure: some of the initiatives were, in fact, interesting and proved that the approach was somewhat correct, but had to be more precisely studied – possibly by integrating also teachers’ and students’ experiences, also outside schools.
The Cameroonian system is deeply divided into two sub-systems: even if formally the two have been merged since 40+ years, differences of approach in teachers are more than evident. This is a real issue, since it affects the possibilities of reforming in a more competitive and efficient way the system. Another issue is the complete lack of a programme for including local languages in the educational system. Main reasons are the lack of Government support to the proposal, and the factual impracticability of some of the proposals: since there are more than 270 local languages in Cameroon, picking at random a language to be taught in all country “would generate political feelings of superiority that may endanger national unity.” There are some programmes (both public and private) to teach those local languages at school and in other facilities, but there are anyway mixed feelings towards them: they are spoken the most in the ordinary lives of Cameroonians, but there is still a “social stigma” towards those who cannot speak anything other than an indigenous languages; on the contrary, being proficient in English or French is something to be proud of (especially teachers are likely to “show off”), but still pupils are not stimulated in using them at home, because of the low literacy level of their families.
Education of students with special needs
In 2010, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child stated that “is deeply concerned at the persistence of de facto discrimination among children in the enjoyment of their rights. It is especially concerned that girls, indigenous children, children with disabilities, refugee children, children from poor rural areas, and children in street situations suffer particular disadvantages with regard to education, access to health and social services.”
Impact of Boko Haram violence
Schools in the Far North Region, such as Fotokol, have been impacted by the Boko Haram insurgency, which has spilled into border areas from neighboring Nigeria. In January 2015, many schools in the Far North did not re-open immediately after the Christmas vacation following the December 2014 Cameroon clashes, and it was reported that "Thousands of teachers, students and pupils have fled schools located along the border due to bloody confrontations between the Cameroon military and suspected Boko Haram militants." The Cameroonian military has deployed forces to ensure safety for students attending schools.
- “Cameroon – Country profile”, UNDP.
- “2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor”, U.S. Department of Labor, 2006.
- “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2006”, U.S. Department of State, 2007.
- “Lessons learned: primary education in Cameroon and South Africa”, Transparency International, July 27, 2011.
- Eric A. Anchimbe, “Socio-pragmatic Constraints to Native or Indigenous Language Education in Cameroon”, in Selected Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference on African Linguistics: Shifting the Center of Africanism in Language Politics and Economic Globalization, Cascadilla Proceedings Project, Somerville, 2006.
- A. Bame Nsamenang, Therese M.S. Tchombe, “Handbook of African Educational Theories and Practices”, Human Development Resource Centre (HDRC), Bamenda, 2011.
- Ian Cheffy, “Implications of local literacy practices for literacy programmes in a multilingual community in northern Cameroon”, in Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 247–260.
- Mark Dike DeLancey, Rebecca Neh Mbuh, “Historical Dictionary of Cameroon”, Scarecrow Press, Plymouth, 2010, 4th edition
- Edith Esch, “English and French pedagogical cultures: convergence and divergence in Cameroonian primary school teachers’ discourse”, in Comparative Education, Vol. 48, No. 3, August 2012
- ^"Cameroon Web/EDUCATION IN CAMEROON". Cameroonweb.com. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- ^A. Bame Nsamenang, Therese M.S. Tchombe, “Handbook of African Educational Theories and Practices”, Human Development Resource Centre (HDRC), Bamenda, 2011, pp. 483-492.
- ^Edith Esch, “English and French pedagogical cultures: convergence and divergence in Cameroonian primary school teachers’ discourse”, in Comparative Education, Vol. 48, No. 3, August 2012, p. 305.
- ^Mark Dike DeLancey, Rebecca Neh Mbuh, “Historical Dictionary of Cameroon”, Scarecrow Press, Plymouth, 2010, 4th edition, p. 70.
- ^John Mukum Mbaku, “Culture and Customs of Cameroon”, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 2005, p. 15.
- ^ ab“2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor”, U.S. Department of Labor, 2006. Available at "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2014-01-09. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
- ^Katarina Tomasevski, “Free or Fee: 2006 Global Report – The State of the Right to Education Worldwide”, Copenhagen, August 2006, p. 23.
- ^ ab"Cameroon – Country profile". UNDP. Archived from the original on 2013-05-16.
- ^"Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2011". U.S. Department of State. 2012.
- ^"Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2006". U.S. Department of State. 2007.
- ^"Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2007". U.S. Department of State. 2008.
- ^"Lessons learned: primary education in Cameroon and South Africa". Transparency International. July 27, 2011.
- ^"Cameroon Education System". Classbase.com. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
- ^"Cameroon Grading System". Classbase.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
- ^ abcdefghijk"2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor"(PDF). Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. 2006. "Cameroon", p. 92. Archived from the original(pdf) on January 9, 2014. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- ^UN human development indicators.
- ^ abc"Accueil - Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur". Minesup.gov.cm. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
- ^Ndangle, Claire. "Girls' Use of Social Internet Networks: For Pedagogical Reasons or To Search for Boy Friends". PanAf Edu. PanAf. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
- ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
- ^“Lessons learned: primary education in Cameroon and South Africa”, Transparency International, op. cit.
- ^Edith Esch, op. cit., p. 318.
- ^Most of the paragraph is based on A. Bame Nsamenang, Therese M.S. Tchombe, “Handbook of African Educational Theories and Practices”, Human Development Resource Centre (HDRC), Bamenda, 2011, pp. 483-492.
- ^Edith Esch, op. cit.
- ^Eric A. Anchimbe, “Socio-pragmatic Constraints to Native or Indigenous Language Education in Cameroon”, in Selected Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference on African Linguistics: Shifting the Center of Africanism in Language Politics and Economic Globalization, Cascadilla Proceedings Project, Somerville, 2006, p. 134.
- ^See Anchimbe, op. cit., pp. 134-136, as well as Ian Cheffy, “Implications of local literacy practices for literacy programmes in a multilingual community in northern Cameroon”, in Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 247-260.
- ^"Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention – Concluding observations: Cameroon"(PDF). OHCHR. 2010. p. 6.
- ^ abAbdullahi Umar (2015-01-06). "Nigeria: Boko Haram - Cameroon Military Vows to Protect Border Schools". Leadership (Abuja) - allAfrica.com. Retrieved 2015-01-08.
- ^ abKaze, Reinnier (2014-06-04). "Bullets in the classroom: Cameroon students caught in Boko Haram crossfire - Cameroon". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
Essay writing is an important part of the XAT Exam especially because it is conducted along with the main exam. The XAT 2018 exam is scheduled to take place on 7th January 2018 and with 1 months in hand to prepare for the exam, shortlisting important topics for essay writing can be tough. In Paper 2, topics related to General Knowledge and Essay Writing are asked to test your writing ability along with speed and accuracy. In order to save your time from the last minute hassles of selecting the important topics for the XAT exam, we have compiled a list of top 25 Essay topics for XAT 2018. Remember that Paper 2 comprises of 25 marks and needs to be attempted in 35 minutes. The 25 marks alloted to section can help you score a high percentile among the competitors aspiring to get a seat in XLRI.
Take a look at all the topics are categorized in 5 sections so that you can cover them conveniently. Most essay writing topics are from the current happenings that occured in the year 2017:
1. ISRO MOM Mission: Our low-cost Mars Orbiter Mission completes three years in its Martian orbit. The good news arrived when India on 24 September 2014 successfully placed the Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft in the orbit around the red planet. The government had in November last said the space organisation was seeking scientific proposals for Mars Orbiter Mission-2 to expand inter-planetary research. As this was one of the very important milestones achieved by India in the field of science and tech, you can expect this topic in the upcoming XAT Essay.
2. Right to Privacy: Supreme Court (SC) recent passed a ruling stating that ‘privacy’ is a fundamental right because it is intrinsic to the right to life. The bench said that ‘Right to Privacy is an integral part of Right to Life and Personal Liberty guaranteed in Article 21 of the Constitution.’ This ruling came to being after Centre's move to make Aadhaar mandatory for availing the benefits of various social welfare schemes. As per the nine bench of judges “any law which is made to restrict this fundamental right will have to be examined on the touchstone of Article 21 which means that the court will have to see if that law imposes reasonable restrictions on your right to privacy or not."
3. Triple Talaq: Both the Koran and the Hadith spell out the rights of Muslim women. They also clearly lay down the procedure for talaq, a lengthy one which carries enough scope for reconciliation before a complete termination of marriage. As per the recent judgment the court said that until the government formulates a law regarding triple talaq, there would be an injunction against husbands pronouncing triple talaq on their wives.
4. Cow Slaughter Ban: Article 48 of the Constitution of India mandates the state to prohibit the slaughter of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle. On 26 May 2017, the Ministry of Environment of Indian Central Government led by Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) imposed a ban on the sale of cows and buffaloes for slaughter at animal markets across India. Read about its impact on the businesses of people dealing in dairy products.
5. Clean India Movement: Union Minister of Culture Mahesh Sharma launched the Swachh Bharat App with an aim to involve people actively to become part of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Movement) in National Museum, Delhi. Once the App is installed and opened, it will ask the user to take photograph of the garbage and write the comment and just submit.
6. Concept of New India: India is the third largest economy with a robust, fast growing market for goods and services. New India is one concept that comprehensively caters to all the recent changes that have somersaulted the otherwise smooth growth of all the sectors of economy. While preparing for these topics do not miss out on including the concepts of Inclusive India, Digital India, Investor-friendly India, Skill India, Transforming India and many more.
XAT 2018: Best Books to prepare for the Exam
7. GST Reforms and impact on Indian Economy: Goods and Services Tax (GST), the biggest reform in India’s indirect tax structure that was initiated to streamline the complex tax structure of Indian economy has lately forced many companies to restructure their operations. There are several aspects which still remains untouched from the purview of GST such as whether gifts and perquisites provided free of charge by an employer to an employee can be subjected to GST. Hopefully, the GST regime is able to revive the economic growth. So all the XAT aspirants, be prepared to write an essay on the pros and cons of GST implementation in Indian economy.
8. Indian Economic Slowdown: India’s GDP growth slumped to a three-year low of 5.7 percent in the first quarter of the current fiscal year. GST regime that was planned to boost the pace of economic growth is at present roadblocks to various stakeholders. For a government that had promised to turn around the economy through decisive governance, this must serve as a wake-up call. For the XAT Essay, be prepared to answer how can growth be revived or what are the reasons for the current slowdown in the economy.
9. Bad bank and NPA Issue: India’s banking system is passing through a critical phase. At present, Rs 10 lakh crore worth of stressed assets, loan growth is stuttering at near six decades-low levels and lending rates are still stubbornly high. Thus, finance ministry and Reserve Bank of India are trying their best to salvage banks from the menace of NPAs. To bring an end to all these problems, a proposal has been forwarded to set up a “bad bank” that will absorb all the bad loans of commercial banks and cleanse the banking system. However, NITI Aayog vice chairman Arvind Panagariya is averse to the idea. The current essay will check your knowledge base upon the pros and cons of setting up the bad bank for the Indian banking system.
10. One Belt, One Road Summit: The One Belt, One Road (OBOR) Summit or Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) concluded on 15 May 2017 in Beijing, China. 68 countries and international organisations have signed belt and road agreements with China. India’s concern is China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), which passes through Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (PoK).
11. Demonitisation and its Impact on Indian Economy: On 8 November 2016, Government of India enacted the policy of demonetising INR 500 and INR 1000 rupee currency notes. While preparing for the purpose of XAT essay writing, focus on the fact that which sectors of Indian economy are the worst hit ones and which ones have outshined. Also read about the pros and cons of this policy in both long and short run. Find out more about the case here.
12. Cashless Economy: Cashless India or an economy with lower cash transactions seems unreal considering the older picture of Indian payment system. But, the current scenario is deviating Indian economy towards a cashless future! Non-cash transactions with the mediums such as Banking cards, USSD, AEPS, UPI, Mobile Wallets, Banks Pre-Paid Cards, Point of Sale, Internet Banking, Mobile Banking, Micro ATM’s have resulted in forcing us to go cashless. In the wake of this issue, read and find out all the government schemes that motivates an individual to go for cashless transactions.
13. Launch of Google Tez: Finally Google has also entered the Indian landscape of making digital payments with the launch of its mobile wallet app. In fact Tez also offers a B2B feature called ‘Tez for Business’, which allows merchants to get their business on Tez app. With existing 20 leading payment app brands such as BHIM, Paytm, Freecharge etc. in India, do you think Tez will be able to capture the Indian market?
14. Flipkart and Snapdeal merger: The long standing deal between the two e-tailers is in the news for various reasons. The Japanese investor, SoftBank has had a critical role to play with its 900 million investments in Snapdeal, marking its foothold in India. On the other hand, a completed merger between these two giants will give rise to one of the largest e-commerce start-ups in the country. So do you think that in the era of consolidation, arch rivals Flipkart and Amazon can change the scenario of e-commerce industry of India.
15. Indian Telecome Industry and Reliance Jio: Reliance Jio’s entry has changed the landscape of the Indian telecom industry drastically. Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) announced the launch of its 4G LTE feature phone called ‘Jio Phone’. With the advent of the revolution brought by Jio, do you think the internet will be accessible to every Indian? Do you also think that Reliance Jio will force other telecom players to go for market consolidation to tap the customer base?
16. Blue Whale Game and social media’s impact on younger generation: The Blue Whale Game aims to push vulnerable youngsters into taking their own lives. But how this game became popular over night? Did technology and individualism take its toll on the younger generation of India as well? The vicious viral game has spread online via social media accounts. Should parents become more vigilant towards the activities in which their kids are getting involved? Get ready to answer all these aspects if in case you get this topic in the XAT Essay.
17. Asia-Africa Growth Corridor: Asia-Africa Growth Corridor or AAGC is an economic cooperation agreement between the governments of India and Japan. When recently Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s arrived India for an annual summit, launch of Asia-Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC) was seen as an an alternative to the One-Belt-One-Road (OBOR) initiative of China. Trade Facilitation is a major component of AAGC Framework. When preparing for the XAT Essay, touch upon the strategic importance of AAGC from trade point of view for Indian economy.
18. Kulbhushan Jadhav case on Jamaat-i-Islami: The International Court of Justice's (ICJ) stayed hanging of former Indian Navy officer Kulbhushan Jadhav, who faced death sentence in Pakistan. India took the matter to the ICJ, citing that it had been repeatedly denied consular access to Jadhav in violation of the provisions of the Vienna Convention. Indian was in the interest of saving the life of an Indian citizen, who is in “illegal detention” and whose “life is under threat”. When preparing for the XAT Essay, keep a complete check on the information as to what is Vienna Convention and will India be able to give sufficient arguments in facour of Jadhav to save him?
19. Paris Climate Agreement: Paris Agreement is an international agreement to combat climate change. 32-page Paris agreement with 29 articles is widely recognized as a historic deal to stop global warming. In the contemporary context this topic holds relevance because of the most powerful economies of the world i.e. ‘USA’ will not renegotiate the Paris Accord, but they (will) try to review the terms on which they could be engaged under this agreement.
20. Rohingyas: The Myanmar Government says that Rohingya people are not Burmese citizens – but the Rohingya have been living in Myanmar for generations. Today, they are a people with no home or citizenship. At present, India supported the discussion in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) on the 'Responsibility to Protect' and the prevention of genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against Rohingyas
21. Cyber Security in Indian IT: After the Ransomware attack, cyber security of Indian IT sector has become a big question. Most of the ransomware was spread hidden within Word documents, PDFs and other files normally sent via email. It is also being called WanaCrypt0r 2.0, Wanna Decryptor 2.0, WCry 2, WannaCry 2 and Wanna Decryptor 2. WannaCry is asking for $300 worth of Bitcoin to unlock the contents of the computers.
MBA General Awareness Study Material eBook
22. FIFA U-17 World Cup: Although it is the first time that India got the golden opportunity to host the major event in the nation, but the big question is that is our infrastructure sound enough to organize the event successfully?
23. The Pitch debate: The state of pitches to be laid out in the Test series against New Zealand has thrown up interesting reactions from Indian cricketers. India had produced spin tracks against South Africa last year, and even won a Test against South Africa. With such a spinner friendly pitch and spinners, we indeed have an edge in the match. So get ready to answer whether there should be rules and regulations set against this aspect as well?
24. Women’s World cup: India women’s cricket proved their mettle with the marvelous performance on the pitch and stood second worldwide. Find out the facts that have positioned Indian to another level when women cricket comes into picture.
25. Davis Cup controversy: Considering the role of Tennis Association in the Davis cup, every year there is some or other form of controversy that spoils the sportsmanship spirit of the sport. This year as well one controversy made its way amidst the game. Every player has the right to choose his partner for the doubles match. In the last match when Rohan Bopanna chose to play with Mahesh Bhupathi, his decision was not accepted by the association. Rather, Leander Paes was instead given the final call by association to play the match with Rohan Bopanna. Taking a look at this situation, be prepared to answer the role of association in the match, should they interfere with the privileges that rest with the players?
The above listed Top 25 Essay topics for XAT 2018 will ease your efforts to scout for important topics. All the topics are relevant for the Paper 2 and can be asked in any form. So be prepared to know everything about the landmark events and score well in the GK section of XAT 2018.
Best of Luck for XAT 2018
XAT 2018: Find Eligibility Criteria, Important dates and Exam Pattern
Ideal number of attempts to score a good percentile in XAT 2018